On the other hand, I think there are some industries/verticals that have been beneficiaries of huge productivity gains. I once was talking to an architect at a party. He was saying that before the industry was computerized, most of their time was spent erasing lines on blueprints. There was a suite of tools and tacit knowledge about how to remove lines without destroying the paper. Computerization meant they could edit the digital copy and print out a new one, at the cost of a much poorer user interface (mouse and keyboard vs pencil and t-square) for the initial draft.